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タイトル: 清初・張沐の「性是功夫」説とその背景
その他のタイトル: Zhang Mu’s “Nature is Effort” and Its Background
著者: 馬淵, 昌也
マブチ, マサヤ
Mabuchi, Masaya
誌名: 言語 文化 社会
号: 15
開始ページ: 1
終了ページ: 28
抄録: The Chinese Confucian scholar Zhang Mu(張沐; 1618-1702), active during the early Qing dynasty, asserted that “Nature is Effort”(性是功夫). At the same time, he denied the presupposition that was shared by almost all Confucian scholars during the Song, Yuan and Ming periods, namely that the four Confucian virtues of benevolence, justice, courtesy and wisdom(仁義礼智)are innately bestowed on the human mind. Zhang adopted certain elements of the theories of the Zhuzixue(朱子学)and Yangmingxue(陽明学)schools of thought, and created a simpler system of Confucian daily practice. In this system, cunxin(存心), deliberately maintaining a righteous state of mind, plays an essential role. He exquisitely connected cunxin with the reading of the classics(読書)and investigating principles in things(即物窮理), thereby providing a simple and acceptable version of the practice of Confucian theory. On the other hand, in his effort to emphasize the importance of daily practice, he tended to deny the basic presupposition of Song-Ming Confucian scholarship that humans have perfect nature in their mind a priori, and claimed that human effort should be understood as a part of nature. Moreover, he at times asserted that humans have two natures: one is something bestowed by heaven as raw material, the other is human effort to accomplish virtues on the basis of the former nature. Similar claims were made sporadically by contemporary Confucians, including Chen Que(陳確), Qian Yiben(銭一本)and others, who aimed to have Confucian scholars pay more attention to daily practice. In their view, the presupposition that humans are naturally bestowed with perfect virtue would mislead Confucian scholars into neglecting the indispensable importance of the ceaseless continuation of practice in order to become a virtuous person. They tried to revise this unfavorable side effect of the “original sage” theory and tended to disregard its theoretical basis, although they often still b elieved, subjectively, in the authenticity of this theory.
発行日: 2017-3
ISSN: 13479105
出現コレクション:言語文化社会 1-13(2003-2015)


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